In the complex world of business and finance (‘B&F’), contracts are the cornerstone of transactions. Within these contracts, certain statements play crucial roles in defining the rights and obligations of the parties involved. This article delves into the significance of some common types of statements within B&F contracts, namely, representations, guarantees, warranties, covenants, undertakings, and indemnities. It will provide clarity on their features, differences, and implications for the parties so that you can feel more confident in navigating the complex world of B&F contracts.


Representations are statements of fact made by one party to another, typically about the present or past state of affairs. They are crucial in B&F contracts because they provide the factual basis upon which the other party relies.

Common agreements that utilise representations:

  • Share Sale Agreements: A seller might represent that the company has no outstanding litigation.
  • Loan Agreements: The borrower represents its financial status and the absence of legal impediments.

Implications / example of non-compliance:

If a representation proves to be false (such as a false claim that there is no outstanding litigation), the affected party (usually the buyer) may have grounds to rescind the contract or claim damages, which highlights the critical role of these statements in ensuring trust and transparency.


A guarantee is a promise that a particular fact or condition is true or will happen. It often involves a third party agreeing to be responsible for the obligations of one of the contracting parties if they default.

In B&F contracts, guarantees provide additional security and assurance for one or both parties, which can be critical in obtaining financing or completing a sale.

Common agreements that utilise guarantees:

  • Loan Agreements: A parent company guarantees the performance of a subsidiary’s obligations.
  • Performance Bonds: Guarantees that a contractor will perform contractual obligations.

Implications: Guarantee statements enhance the confidence of parties, particularly lenders, by ensuring obligations will be met or that they will be compensated if the obligations are not met.

Example of non-compliance:

If a parent company guarantees a subsidiary’s loan and the subsidiary defaults on repayment, the lender can demand payment from the parent company. If the parent company fails to honour the guarantee, the lender can initiate legal action to recover the owed amount against the subsidiary and/or parent company.


Warranties are a term of an agreement which stipulate a specific statement of affairs or a required level of performance by a party. These serve as a risk allocation mechanism between contracting parties, which offer protection and recourse if issues arise post-transaction. Where a non-fundamental warranty term is breached, the innocent party may seek damages but not the termination of the contract.

Common agreements that utilise warranties:

  • Share Sale Agreements: Warranties might cover the accuracy of financial statements, ownership of assets, and compliance with laws.
  • Service Agreements: Warranties on the quality and timeliness of services provided.


For purchasers, comprehensive warranties mitigate risks, while vendors aim to limit warranties to minimise future liabilities.

Example of non-compliance:

In a service agreement, if a service provider fails to meet the promised quality standards, the client can claim damages or demand corrective actions based on the breached warranties.

Further, in a recent share sale agreement, the lack of comprehensive warranties resulted in the purchaser discovering undisclosed liabilities, leading to costly litigation.


Covenants are promises to do or not do something in the future usually concerning agreed standards and behaviours. They are ongoing obligations that one party undertakes to ensure certain conditions are met throughout the contract term.

Common agreements that utilise covenants:

  • Loan Agreements: They are crucial in loan agreements, where covenants ensure that the borrower maintains financial stability and minimises risk for the lender.
  • Lease Agreements: Tenants agree to use the property only for specified purposes.

Implications and purpose:

They maintain the integrity and intended use of assets or funds, protecting the interests of all parties involved.

Example of non-compliance:

In a loan agreement, if a borrower fails to maintain covenants covering the required financial ratios (e.g., debt-to-equity ratio), the lender may declare a default and demand immediate repayment of the loan, potentially leading to financial distress for the borrower.


Undertakings are commitments by one party to act or refrain from acting in a specified manner. They are similar to covenants but are often more specific and less ongoing.

Undertakings are important because they provide clear, actionable commitments that help ensure the smooth progression of the transaction, preventing delays and misunderstandings.

Common agreements that utilise guarantees:

  • Mergers and Acquisitions (‘M&A’): Undertakings can ensure that certain actions are taken by a specified time, such as delivering certain documents or completing specific tasks.
  • Regulatory Filings: Undertakings can ensure compliance with regulatory requirements within a set timeframe.

Example of non-compliance:

In an M&A transaction, if a party fails to deliver the required documents by the agreed deadline, it could delay the closing of the deal and potentially lead to financial penalties or the deal falling through.


Indemnities are promises to compensate the other party for certain losses or damages, serving as a critical risk management tool. Properly structured indemnities allocate risk appropriately, ensuring that parties are compensated for unforeseen damages or losses.

Common agreements that utilise indemnities:

  • Business Sale Agreements: In a business sale agreement, the seller might indemnify the buyer against any future tax liabilities arising from events prior to the sale.
  • Service Contracts: Service providers indemnify clients against damages resulting from negligence.

Example of non-compliance:

In a business sale agreement, if the seller indemnifies the buyer for pre-existing tax liabilities as agreed, the buyer may incur significant unexpected expenses and can seek legal recourse to recover the costs from the seller. Conversely, overly broad indemnities can expose a seller to significant financial risks long after the transaction is completed.


Each of these statements serves a unique purpose in B&F contracts, and their proper use can significantly impact the transaction’s success. In practice, the failure to properly include or understand these statements can lead to significant disputes. The above terms not only define the rights and obligations of the parties but also allocate risk and provide mechanisms for recourse. Properly drafting and negotiating these elements can make the difference between a successful transaction and a contentious, litigious aftermath. For legal practitioners and clients alike, a nuanced understanding of these terms is indispensable in navigating the complexities of B&F contracts. If you would like to better understand these terms and how they will impact your agreements, please do not hesitate to contact Ersel Akpinar ( and our experienced B&F team today.


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